Verification and validation are independent procedures that are used together for checking that a product, service, or system meets requirements and specifications and that it fulfills its intended purpose. These are critical components of a quality management system such as ISO 9000. The words “verification” and “validation” are sometimes preceded with “independent”, indicating that the verification and validation is to be performed by a disinterested third party. “Independent verification and validation” can be abbreviated as “IV&V”. In practice, the usage of these terms varies. Sometimes they are even used interchangeably. The PMBOK guide, a standard adopted by IEEE, defines them as follows in its 4th edition: “Validation. The assurance that a product, service, or system meets the needs of the customer and other identified stakeholders. It often involves acceptance and suitability with external customers. Contrast with verification.” “Verification. The evaluation of whether or not a product, service, or system complies with a regulation, requirement, specification, or imposed condition. It is often an internal process. Contrast with validation.”